There are many differences between the two, apart from the striking one: The beliefs of Martin Luther King and Malcolm X may stem from the fact that their childhoods were vastly different, given that the former lived in a very comfortable and middle class home while the latter experienced the worst that an underprivileged home. The former was very educated, while the latter was self-taught after what little schooling he had received. Martin Luther King actually came from a family who was well-known in their area of Atlanta, while Malcolm X was a virtual nobody.
It signifies a convergence of physical and social space and is to be distinguished from other social forms which also structure social distance in spatial terms, as, for example, the elaborate patterns of deference in African societies with sacred kingship or the different levels of seating reflecting caste status among Singhalese castes.
The latter regulate social relationships between persons in situations of contact; segregation refers primarily to the separation of persons and the avoidance of contact. Segregated roles may vary in extensiveness extreme separation being represented by indirect rule in colonial societyin type the intimate roles of primary relationships or the more impersonal roles in secondary relationshipsand in the relative level of the actors for example, where equal-status contacts are proscribed but dominant-subordinate contacts are fostered, as in racial segregation, or apartheid, in South Africa.
Segregative systems may also be distinguished as compulsory or voluntary, as deliberate or spontaneous, and as influenced positively by attraction or negatively by disdain. Compulsory segregation involves deliberation and invidious distinction and serves the interests of those who impose it.
Although segregation imposes separation of persons and groups, it is by no means the antithesis of societal integration. The segregation of units may be a basis for integration, as in traditional Indian caste society, where a consensual basis for segregation was derived partly from shared religious values.
Indeed, segregation may be conceived of as a general, although not a universal, aspect of social organization. It defines the boundaries between groups, locates the groups in the hierarchy, and regulates their interaction. Because of the intimate relationship of segregation to systems of domination, it is often highly resistant to change and readily becomes a focus of political conflict.
The initial emphasis on the biotic approach stressed the subsocial elements in human society, with the corollary, explicit or implied, that segregation was a natural phenomenon; there was the same implication in the concept of natural areas [see REGION ].
By contrast, the cultural approach, which developed in criticism of the biotic, stresses the influence of values on the spatial distribution of urban populations, especially the role of prejudice and discrimination in the segregation of ethnic and racial groups. Sociologists share with social psychologists and political scientists an interest in the psychological consequences of segregation as it affects the processes of prejudice, consensus, and political cleavage.
And this interest has been further stimulated by the struggle for desegregation in the United States —a major focus of the movement to secure effective civil rights for Negroes—and by the threat of racial civil war in South Africawhich has a regime of systematic racial and ethnic segregation. Social structural factors Segregation, being an aspect of social structure, varies in its incidence and nature with the type of society.
It hardly exists in relatively undifferentiated societies, such as those of the Bushmen; and the term is not really applicable to the divisions between kin groups in segmented societies, which constitute separate rather than segregated units, loosely federated in certain situations.
While segregation is associated with social differentiation, there does not appear to be a precise relationship between the two.
Segregation may be highly elaborated both in societies where the division of labor is not greatly advanced and in modern industrialized societies. Thus, segregation is a basic principle of organization in the village communities of Indian caste society, where it regulates residence, access to amenities, and contact between the castes and where it receives ritual reinforcement in patterns of avoidance sanctioned by the threat of pollution.
And it is characteristic of the most industrialized metropolitan cities of North Americain which there is extensive segregation of Negroes in residence, worship, education, and social intercourse.
Nor does it seem that progressive industrialization will necessarily dissolve ethnic and religious particularisms that are irrelevant to the industrial process and replace them by distinctions resting on more universal criteria of qualification and achievement. This may be the trend within industry, but there is a continuing relevance of ethnic and religious identification as bases of association in the cities and in the extensive movement of urban populations to the suburbs.
The relationship between segregation and rigidity of social structure is equally complex. Segregation is characteristic of societies with complex class systems, although the ecological patterns of class segregation vary and a central city location may distinguish the upper classes in one society, the lower classes in another.
There may be extensive segregation of roles in a class system, where residential segregation lays the foundations for segregation in education, religion, and recreation. But the barriers are much more permeable than in caste systems; in fact, in these two systems there is a direct relationship between the rigidity of the system of stratification and the rigidity of the system of segregation.
This relationship, however, does not hold for the slave plantations, in which the extreme of social distance was nevertheless compatible with intimate contact.
Segregation is one of many forms of institutionalized social distance and not in itself a precise indicator of social structure.
Pluralism Plural societies have an affinity for segregation, especially when the social cleavages between racial, ethnic, or tribal groups are associated with cultural differences, as in the colonial societies of Africa.
The policies of the metropolitan powers imply different policies toward segregation.
In theory, Africans who acquire Portuguese or French culture may move freely in the circles of the conquerors, acculturation bridging the social cleavages between them. The British theory of indirect rule, by contrast, maintains the separation between the races by a system of parallel institutions, which extends to the courts of law; legal and other dualisms help maintain cultural diversity, and acculturation does not qualify individual Africans to cross the barriers of segregation and racial cleavage.
In South Africa, a system of parallel institutions and consequent segregation serve to foster nationalism among the Afrikaans-speaking white population and to segregate racial, ethnic, and tribal groups under the policy of apartheid. Patterns of racial and ethnic segregation Different historical circumstances influence the patterns of segregation between the races.
For example, after the conquest of Algiers the French settled inside the depopulated city, whereas in the protectorate of Morocco, which was constituted by treaty with the sultan, they established separate cities adjacent to the Muslim cities Le Tourneaupp.
Comparison of racial and cultural criteria. Mandela was imprisoned in for his participation in the fight for civil rights, and he spent nearly thirty years of his life in prison. "I Have A Dream," as printed in Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Peaceful Warrior, by Ed Clayton, Simon Pulse, , originally published in , pp. Legislative Assembly of Ontario: Official Report of Debates (Hansard) Ontario Department of Lands and Forests: Resource Management Report Workplace Safety and Insurance Board and Workers' Compensation Appeals Tribunal Annual Reports Journaux de la Chambre Communes du Canada avec l'Annexes Proclamations and Orders in Council passed under the authority of the War Measures Act . free inquiry leslutinsduphoenix.com 2 We are committedto the application of reason and science to the understanding of the universe and to the solving of.
Segregation is also affected by the extent and nature of administrative regulation. In British and French west Africa, racial segregation was social and customary; in the Belgian Congo and southern Africa, it was legally imposed and sanctioned.
In South Africa it is systematized under town plans, which tend to reserve the core of the towns for whites and to move nonwhites to the periphery or beyond or to establish them in satellite towns. Whatever the colonial policy, the historical conditions, or the administrative framework, the general pattern in colonial Africa is one of racial segregation, and in east Africa and South Africa it extends also to intermediate groups such as Indians.
The generality of racial segregation in colonial Africa flows from the convergence of many different types of social distance, based on race, power, class, and culture.
Inevitably, the lower classes on the fringes of urban life the so-called sous-proletariat who live in the improvised shanty towns, or bidonvilles, are recruited from the population of the colonized, and the residents of upper-class neighborhoods are the colonizers.
Cultural differences extend racial separation to many institutional spheres. Even in shared institutions as in the conversion to Christianityideologies of domination or sentiments of superiority fuse with cultural and racial differences to create varied and intricate patterns of integration and segregation, including, in extreme cases, reinterpretation of the communion with Christ.Full text of "ERIC ED I Have a Dream: Martin Luther King, Jr.
Handbook of Activities." See other formats. "Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., center, leads a group of civil rights workers and Selma black people in prayer on Feb. 1, in Selma, Alabama after they were arrested on charges of parading without a permit.
Comparison of racial and cultural criteria. Mandela was imprisoned in for his participation in the fight for civil rights, and he spent nearly thirty years of his life in prison. "I Have A Dream," as printed in Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Peaceful Warrior, by Ed Clayton, Simon Pulse, , originally published in , pp.
for Civil Rights MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR., NATIONAL MEMORIAL AARP President-elect Jennie Chin Hansen (right) at the groundbreaking for a memorial on the National Mall honoring the life and work of Dr.
King. AARP pledged $1 million toward its construction. “AARP’s leaders share and promote Dr. King’s national and international.
The beliefs of Martin Luther King and Malcolm X may stem from the fact that their childhoods were vastly different, given that the former lived in a very comfortable and middle class home while the latter experienced the worst that an underprivileged home. Martin Luther King Jr.
and Malcolm X were two individuals who not only helped the African-American plight during the Civil Rights Movement, but served as icons to the history of their race.