Agence France Press reported in Novembercovering an article from the famous investigative journalist, Seymour Hersh. It is not clear at this time why there would be such discrepancy between two presumably close intelligent services, the CIA and Mossad. A similar plan by Israel not using tactical nuclear weapons, however was created one year earlierthe same authors at the Sunday Times had reported. Alternatively, the reporting could be accurate, for the reports do note that the strikes would happen only if called for.
India had been poised on the brink of doing so for some years, with successive governments making active preparation to hold tests, going so far as to actually emplace nuclear devices in test shafts, and - under the first short-lived BJP government - to actually order that tests be conducted.
Support for an open declaration of nuclear weapons status had become popular with the Indian public byand it was an official part of the BJP political platform. The successful execution of nuclear tests under the second BJP government was thus all but a foregone conclusion.
Like India, Pakistan had made many preparations for testing over the years, and could thus organize a test effort on short notice. On 6 April Pakistan conducted its first test of the Ghauri.
Pakistani media reports credited the missile with a km test flight and an apogee of km, but information on the impact point shows that the flight distance was no more than km.
The system had a claimed range of km. While Pakistan has stated publicly that the missile was designed and produced indigenously it was, in fact, a North Korea produced No-dong. Ghauri, April In the afternoon of Monday, 11 May Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee stunned the world by announcing at a hurriedly convened press conference that earlier that day India had conducted three nuclear tests.
International observers were, if anything, even more astonished by the announcement two days later that two additional tests had been conducted. Pressure for test spanned the political spectrum from liberals like opposition leader Benazir Bhutto to the religious right. And the Pakistani military, the true seat of power in Pakistan and the actual authority over its nuclear weapons, had been eager to conduct tests for years.
Sharif thus faced unbearable pressure to authorize its own nuclear test series. Pakistan had suffered under the penalties of the Pressler Amendment for years. If Pakistan had abjured testing at this point, its status on the world stage would have climbed dramatically - as the "responsible" member of the India-Pakistan confrontation.
But by responding in kind, Pakistan not only lost all of these opportunities, it subjected itself to additional sanctions imposed in retaliation. The day after the first tests Ayub Khan said the Asian subcontinent has been thrust into a nuclear arms race and indicated that Pakistan was ready to conduct a nuclear test of its own.
We in Pakistan will maintain a balance with India in all fields," he said n an interview. But officials familiar the deliberations spoke of a division within the cabinet over an appropriate Pakistani response. According to an aide, Sharif appeared to favor "a balanced and moderate response" and ordered a report on the cost the country would have to bear if a Pakistani nuclear test brought international sanctions.
The same day President Clinton telephone Sharif and urged him not to go ahead with a test, asking him "not to respond to an irresponsible act in kind. Also, in attendance was Dr. The discussions went on for a few hours and encompassed the financial, diplomatic, military, strategic and national security concerns.
Finance Minister Sartaj Aziz was the only person who opposed the tests on financial grounds due to the economic recession, the low foreign exchange reserves of the country and the effect of inevitable economic sanctions which would be imposed on Pakistan if it carried out the tests.
Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif neither opposed nor proposed the tests. The remainder spoke in favour of conducting the tests. Mubarakmand added that if it is decided that Pakistan should go ahead with nuclear tests of its own, then the PAEC is fully prepared to carry out the nuclear tests within 10 days.
Khan reminded the DCC that it was KRL which first enriched uranium, converted it into metal, machined it into semi-spheres of metal and designed their own atomic bomb and carried out cold tests on their own.
All this was achieved without any help from PAEC. He said that KRL was fully independent in the nuclear field. The DCC meeting concluded without any resolution of the two agenda points. Over the weekend Sharif consulted with various parties and factions, and remained under enormous pressure to test.
Meanwhile public reaction continued to favor an immediate response. Former PM Benazir Bhutto advocated not only an immediate nuclear test by Pakistan, but also asserted that India should be disarmed by a preemptive attack, and called on Sharif to resign.
The tension was ratcheted up on Saturday by Ayub Khan, known to be a hard-liner with close ties to the military, when he remarked to reporters that a nuclear test by Pakistan "is just a matter of timing and the government of Pakistan will choose as to when to conduct the test.
Ayub Khan repeated the remarks the next day, telling The Associated Press that Pakistan has decided to go ahead with a test of a nuclear device.
The frenzy of speculation reached a peak on Sunday, 17 May, when the nuclear device was believed to be in place for a test.leslutinsduphoenix.com is the premiere source for primary source information and nonpartisan, realistic analysis of Iran's nuclear program.
More about the site». Contact: Kelsey Davenport, Director for Nonproliferation Policy, () x Updated: September For years, the United States and the international community have tried to negotiate an end to North Korea’s nuclear and missile development and its export of ballistic missile technology.
In , Iran, which is a member of the NPT, had begun to build a uranium-enrichment facility that could have the capability to produce uranium suitable for use in nuclear weapons In mid, a 6-nation group presented Iran with a set of proposals that called for a halt in uranium enrichment in return for economic and diplomatic incentives.
Iran has had a turbulent history in just its recent past. From a democracy in the s, Iran seems to have moved backwards, from an authoritarian regime (backed by Britain and the US) that overthrew the democratic one, to a religious fundamentalist regime toppling the .
The Nuclear Information Project provides the public with reliable information about the status and trends of the nuclear weapons arsenals of the world’s nuclear-armed countries..
The project, which according to the Washington Post is “one of the most widely sourced agencies for nuclear warhead counts,” uses open sources such as official documents, testimonies, previously undisclosed.
About the World Nuclear Weapons Stockpile Report. A quarter century after the end of the Cold War, the world’s combined stockpiles of nuclear weapons remain at unacceptably high levels.