An overview of sociology and the different sociological theories

Coercive control Coercive power is the application of negative influences. It includes the ability to demote or to withhold other rewards. The desire for valued rewards or the fear of having them withheld that ensures the obedience of those under power.

An overview of sociology and the different sociological theories

I begin with a general introduction into the discipline of sociology, before providing a definition of its applied branch. Lastly, I present An overview of sociology and the different sociological theories outline of the professional skills that a degree in sociology can offer its graduates.

My discussion on applied sociology refers to those professionals who use the principles of sociology outside a university setting in order to provide their clients with an in-depth understanding of some specific facet of society that requires information gathering and analysis.

Applied sociologists work in various industries, including private business, government agencies and not-for-profit organisations.

This can include anything from increasing the health and wellbeing of a disadvantaged community group; working with law enforcement organisations to implement a rehabilitation program for criminal offenders; assisting in planning for natural disasters; and enhancing existing government programs and policies.

I will show that a degree in sociology has several career benefits, but I specifically focus on the strong communication, research and interpersonal skills that prove advantageous to sociology graduates looking for work.

I argue that applied sociology can help to improve any professional sector that might benefit from a critical evaluation of how a particular social issue, group or organisation works. That is, sociology is the study of what it means to be a member of a particular society, and it involves the critical analysis of the different types of social connections and social structures that constitute a society.

Three Major Perspectives in Sociology

This includes questions about how and why different groups are formed and the various meanings attached to different modes of social interaction, such as between individuals or social networks; face to face versus online communications; local and global discourses, and so on.

Sociology also encompasses the study of the social institutions that shape social action. A social institution is a complex, but distinctive, sub-system of society that regulates human conduct Berger Sociology can therefore be used to study all the social experiences that human beings are capable of imagining — from practices of childbirth, to the use technologies, to our attitudes and rituals regarding death — and everything else in between.

Sociology is the study of society. Sociology allows us to study individual behaviour in a broader context, to take into consideration how societal forces might impact upon individuals, as well as the ways in which individuals construct the world around them, and how they manage to resist existing power relationships in order to achieve social change.

Sociology is often perceived as an academic profession, but there are many places outside of universities where sociology can be used to enhance personal and professional development. More specifically, applied sociology might be seen as the translation of sociological theory into practice for specific clients.

That is, this term describes the use of sociological knowledge in answering research questions or problems as defined by specific interest groups, rather than the researcher Steele and Price Applied research is sometimes conducted within a multidisciplinary environment and in collaboration with different organisations, including community services, activist groups and sometimes in partnership with universities.

Some applied sociologists may not explicitly use sociological theories or methods in their work, but they may use their sociological training more broadly to inform their work and their thinking. History and applications of sociological practice Photo: Perlstadt writes that Comte divided the discipline of sociology in two parts: Basic researchers educate and influence public debate, and social interventionists are political activists who are responsible for actively enforcing social change While these differences may appear to be artificial, ambivalence persists between academic and applied sociologies, despite the fluidity and intersections between these practices see Gouldner ; DeMartini ; Rossi First, the sociologist as decision-maker is someone who uses social science in order to shape policy decisions The sociologist as an educator is a person who teaches sociology to students, typically in a university setting The sociologist as a commentator and social critic is someone who writes for a wider public through books and articles aimed at an educated public, with a view of influencing public opinion The sociologist as researcher for clients might be someone who works with public or private organisations, such as mental health groups, banks, or some other company that commissions research on very specific topics Zetterberg positions applied sociologists as fulfilling the latter two roles: First, applied researchers might use basic empirical methods in collecting information in order to help shape informed decisions, such as in the creation of social policy.

In this meaning, sociologists might be directly working within government agencies, or they might work for private research organisations, or they might be contracted for one or the other.

He lists the following activities as examples of this applied methodological approach: While these sociologists might employ scientific theories and concepts, their specialisation is actually the application of sociological research techniques in order to gather specific information, rather than the application of sociological theories per se Activities might include assessing the determinants of observed phenomena, such as the causes of crime, explaining demographic changes, and evaluating the shifts in social movements.

Promoted results

Alternatively, applied sociologists might propose a course of action in order to achieve targeted change, such as by increasing the economic outcomes of a disadvantaged community, reforming illegal behaviours, or developing a framework in order to prepare a local community in the advent of a natural disaster To clarify the distinction between these two applied practices, DeMartini uses the example of social policy: DeMartini notes, however, that this differentiation is for illustration purposes, and that, in fact, applied practices run along a continuum in between these two practices Methods and theories cannot be used in isolation, but some jobs might require more emphasis on one than the other.

Nevertheless, by and large, Freeman and Rossi see that academic and applied sociologists are distinguished in six ways. Since, they are hired by external stakeholders, their rewards are judged by their sponsors, on the basis of whether these clients see the work as being useful to them Academics rely more on peer-evaluations, and there is high prestige in publishing in academic journals.

Second, Freeman and Rossi argue that applied sociologists have narrow constraints on their time and the specificity of their work outputs, while academic sociologists are more free to choose their research topic notwithstanding the politics of grant funding and the publishing potential of certain topics This work includes collaborating with medical practitioners, nurses, psychologists, psychiatrists and nutritionists, as well as advocacy and support in mental health programs, including through counselling, interpersonal therapy, intervention programs with youth, substance abuse services, and group grief counselling.

He argues that applied sociological knowledge lends itself to a systems engineering approach. Public Sociology One thing that practitioners seem to agree on is that their work needs to be carried out in a way that is both accessible to their clients and devoid of academic jargon.

The next section takes up this issue of graduate careers in applied sociology.The Sociological Theories of Karl Marx Uses of Sociology. It is very common for sociological research to be directly focused on a social problem, with the goal of changing social policy.

An overview of sociology and the different sociological theories

A Macro theory is a sociological theory designed to study the larger social, global, and societal level of sociological phenomena. This theory was founded by a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, and revolutionary (). The Three Main Sociological Perspectives 1 The Three Main Sociological Perspectives From Mooney, Knox, and Schacht, Understanding Social Problems, 5 th edition Theories in sociology provide us with different perspectives with which to view our social world.

Deviant behavior is any behavior that is contrary to the dominant norms of society. There are many different theories that explain how behavior comes to be classified as deviant and why people engage in it, including biological explanations, psychological explanations, and sociological explanations.

Finally, sociology studies social institutions are major structures made up of groups or ideas that influence people's daily lives, views of the world, or integration into society. General Overview. Scholars of masculinity discuss men and masculinity as socially constructed.

Rather than focusing on biological universals, social and behavioral scientists investigate the different meanings that masculinity and femininity have in different contexts.

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