Cognitive Flexibility Evolutionists insist that genes constrain and direct human behavior.
Rarely has the international community been so intensively focused as now on the need to revamp and adapt our international institutions and organizations to the requirements and needs of a new age. Discussions of this kind are by no means unprecedented. For what is commonly described today as "UN reform" has always been on the agenda of the organization in one way or another.
But the radically novel situation created by the demise of the Cold War, the continuing and deepening rift between North and South, together with short-term pressures and concerns, have given to this debate a new sense of urgency and acuity. Such essential questions as the place of the United Nations in international affairs, the functions it should be assigned in the international arena, as well as the services the international community can expect from it, are being scrutinized through the ongoing deliberations now taking place in no fewer than five different groups established by the General Assembly of the United Nations.
There are significant areas of agreement among the actors involved. But some questions remain politically controversial. Others are highly con- tentious.
In brief, the search for a durable consensus is likely to be a lengthy and delicate one. The stakes of this grand debate, however, are high, as its implications are global in scope and significance.
For this reason alone, it would need to be nurtured and sustained by a vigorous process of intellectual policy reflection and policy analysis. It is against this back- drop that the University organized last fall in Tokyo a symposium How does tradition constrain the protagonists brought together scholars, UN officials and policy makers from all over the world.
The purpose of the meeting was to flesh out and launch a major research effort focused on the "United Nations System in the Twenty-first Century" UN UN21 is an extension and integral part of a long-term programme of study and reflection spelled out in the report of an advisory team which I convened last year to define a focused framework for UNU research and advanced training in the broad field of peace and global governance.
The specific objective of the project is to examine how international organizations, especially the United Nations, are coping with challenges in five key issue areas - peace and security, economic development, the environment, human dignity and political governance - and to explore alternative models that would best meet the needs of the international community in the next century.
Global citizenship, market forces, regional arrangements, states and sovereignty and international organization will provide the substantive foci of this work.
As a research, training and dissemination exercise, UN21 is expected to span the next five years. It will be carried out under the umbrella of a high-level international advisory board which will provide advice about evolving research priorities.
Specific substantive research objectives will be defined at annual agenda-setting workshops which will meet in the spring of each year. Annual symposia held in the fall will provide outlets for the work accomplished in each research issue area. The highest priority will be given to the dissemination of the work as it progresses.
Occasional papers and specific reports will be issued at regular intervals highlighting research outcomes. The papers presented at the annual symposia will be published in yearly reports. The entire process should lead to the publication of bound volumes by the end of the project. The aim is to produce a steady stream of academically sound, timely, politically relevant and action-oriented studies shedding new light on some of the key questions now raised about the United Nations, the foundations of its authority and the scope of its legitimate role in a rapidly evolving environment.
It is our hope that these studies will promote the deliberative process now unfolding among scholars and practitioners both within and outside the United Nations.
I would also like to note here our appreciation for the official support of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan and the Nihon Keizai Shimbun for the November symposium. As the post-Cold War euphoria faded, the future of the United Nations became clouded by widespread scepticism and disillusionment about its roles and capabilities.
Moreover, the world organization is crippled by heavy debts and entrenched bureaucracies.
Nonetheless, pessimism about the United Nations should not limit its possibilities for the future. The United Nations is a product of its Member States. It is malleable to their wishes and political will.
The governments and peoples of the world determine the future of the United Nations. If they wish to reconstruct the world body as an effective institution, they must do so.
But if they refuse to allow it a meaningful role, it will be reduced to a historical relic. Thus, we are confronted by fundamental questions at this juncture.
Do we need, and want, the United Nations? Can the United Nations address the challenges of a world which is so different from that of ? Can it answer evolving peace and security demands and sub- and trans-state challenges, which are increasingly apparent? Can an organization which was established on the basis of relations between stable states adapt to issues and problems which do not conform to this paradigm?
Conceptual Confusion Before answering these questions, however, we should remember that our conception of the United Nations is fluid and variable. As a result, the United Nations has, to a great extent, become a vague and malleable term.Evolutionists insist that genes constrain and direct human behavior.
Cultural constructivists counter that culture, embodied in the arts, shapes human experience. Both these claims are true, but some evolutionists and some cultural constructivists have mistakenly regarded them as mutually exclusive.
By Tsegaye R Ararssa* 1.
André is a young European who left his decaying country in for greener pastures. He enjoys exploring subterranean places, reading about a host of interconnected topics, and yearns for Tradition. Foreword to the Third Edition. B runo Leoni was a devoted proponent, in virtually all his activities, of those ideals we call liberal. He was a remarkable talented, intelligent, able, persuasive, multifaceted individual who might well have deserved the description. Destined for War: Can America and China Escape Thucydides's Trap? [Graham Allison] on leslutinsduphoenix.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES ARE HEADING TOWARD A WAR NEITHER WANTS. The reason is Thucydides’s Trap.
Introduction What is the story of the Ethiopian federal experiment? What stories does it tell? And what stories can be told about it? Feeding from and into the ever polarized and polarizing ‘debate’ on Ethiopia’s politics, Dr Taye Negussie recently argued that the Ethiopian federal.
Envisioning the United Nations in the Twenty-first Century Proceedings of the Inaugural Symposium on the United Nations System in the Twenty-first Century. “How does tradition constrain the protagonists of the novel ‘Like Water for Chocolate’ and the film ‘Chocolat’?” Tradition is a show of belief and a practice.
It surrounds us in its entirety, in our everyday lives through small, petty shows and in much grander examples such as marriage. Is tradition an obstacle to progress? 63% Say Yes 37% Say No Change is good. Traditions are not static.
They are constantly evolving with time. New generations bring new thoughts, new ideas, new ways of doing things. How does this tradition help our family, our culture, our way of life.” Why we did things the way we did, 50 or 40 years. Vaclav Havel: Bruce Bawer has a fascinating essay on the life and achievements of Vaclav leslutinsduphoenix.com those who may not know, Havel was a playwright who gave up a potential life of privilege as a government-sponsored writer to become a leader of the dissident movement in Communist Czechoslovakia in the s.