A monocultivated potato field Some people choose to be vegetarian or vegan for environmental reasons.
We love to explain the parallels between sexism and speciecism, or compare animal farming with slavery. To what extent are these issues connected, and if they are, how do we bring this up in a way that is convincing rather than alienating?
In a recent paper published in the European Journal of Personality, Kristof and his colleagues investigated the common ideological roots of speciesism and ethnic prejudice. Kristof, what prompted you to do research on the common roots of attitudes towards animals and towards human groups?
Can you tell us a bit more about this line of research? Influential philosophers like Peter Singer have written about the parallels between how members from disadvantaged groups are or have been treated and the way people treat and think about non-human animals.
From numerous psychological studies, we already knew that people who dislike or express prejudice toward one outgroup e. Thus, for instance, people who endorse racist views are more likely to also endorse sexist views. This idea can be broadened to include attitudes towards animals.
And this is something you went on to test yourself? Yes, as a first step, my colleagues and I wanted to extend this idea by investigating whether those who express more negative and prejudiced views toward ethnic and religious outgroups would also more strongly endorse exploitative attitudes toward animals speciesist attitudes.
This is exactly what we found, first in a study conducted in Canada and subsequently also in a series of studies conducted in Belgium, the UK and the USA 1. People who expressed greater ethnic prejudice also expressed greater support for a range of practices of animal exploitation such as hunting, factory farming, meat consumption, animal testing, whaling and using animals for human entertainment in for instance circuses or rodeos.
In a new set of studies conducted with my graduate student Alina Salmen, we also found consistent support for the links between speciesism and sexism. Recently, a team of researchers at the University of Oxford replicated these findings with a newly developed scale of speciesism. Do you have an idea as to why this connection would exist?
From the perspective of a psychological scientist, we looked specifically at the role of general ideological beliefs and motives. Our expectation was that desires for dominance and inequality between social groups would play an important role here.
More specifically, people differ from each other in the degree to which they prefer a society characterised by a strong hierarchy and inequality between social groups, as opposed to a society characterised by more egalitarian intergroup relationships.
This general social orientation or trait is known as social dominance orientation. Our studies showed that a desire for group-based dominance showed substantial associations with both ethnic prejudice and speciesism, and represents a key ideological factor explaining why ethnic prejudice is associated with speciesism.
Related to preferences for hierarchical intergroup relations, also the belief that humans are meant to dominate over animals and the natural environment appeared to be important, not just as predictor of attitudes towards animals, but, for instance, also in predicting attitudes towards women.
This shows that the way people think about animals and about the status of animals has implications for the way we think about human groups.
Perhaps it depends on how you would define intersectionality. Members of disadvantaged social groups often belong to multiple low-status groups e.
On a broader level, intersectionality also refers to the idea that different systemic and institutionalised forms of oppression such as racism, sexism and homophobia are not just related to each other but are closely intertwined and thus dynamically interconnected.
This is more what I have been focusing on in my research, but from a psychological perspective, investigating attitudes, beliefs and behaviour of people, rather than a sociological one.The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
Another argument for animal testing is that animal testing not only helps human beings, but it also helps animals. During the last two to three decades, the discovery of various cures for animal diseases has increased dramatically. Animal Rights - The Ethics of Eating Meat.
Essay about The Ethics of Meat Consumption - There is violence inherent to human survival, for to survive means to kill and consume another organism in order to absorb its energy and keep your heart beating.
At this stage we were still hunter-gatherers, out looking for food rather than growing and rearing our own supplies. Modern day hunter-gatherers such as the San of Namibia and Botswana, still acquire about 60% of their energy intake from meat and milk.
by Megan L.
Norris. Summary: As the prevalence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) continues to rise, there has been an increasing public interest for information concerning the safety of these leslutinsduphoenix.comns generally focus on how the GMO may affect the environment or how it may affect the consumer.
One specific concern is the possibility for GMOs to negatively affect human health. Superintelligence The Idea That Eats Smart People: In , as American physicists were preparing to test the atomic bomb, it occurred to someone to ask if such a test could set the atmosphere on fire.