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RegistanSher-Dor Madrasa in Samarkand In the medieval Islamic world, an elementary school was known as a maktab, which dates back to at least the 10th century. He wrote that children can learn better if taught in classes instead of individual tuition from private tutorsand he gave a number of reasons for why this is the case, citing the value of competition and emulation among pupils, as well as the usefulness of group discussions and debates.
During which time, he wrote, they should be taught the Qur'an, Islamic metaphysicsArabic, literatureIslamic ethicsand manual skills which could refer to a variety of practical skills.
He writes that children after the age of 14 should be allowed to choose and specialise in subjects they have an interest in, whether it was reading, manual skills, literature, preaching, medicinegeometrytrade and commercecraftsmanshipor any other subject or profession they would be interested in pursuing for a future career.
He wrote that this was a transitional stage and that there needs to be flexibility regarding the age in which pupils graduate, as the student's emotional development and chosen subjects need to be taken into account.
Ijazah Courtyard of the Al-Azhar Mosque and University in CairoEgypt During its formative period, the term madrasah referred to a higher education institution, whose curriculum initially included only the "religious sciences", whilst philosophy and the secular sciences were often excluded.
Some madaris further extended their curriculum to historypoliticsethicsmusicmetaphysicsmedicineastronomy and chemistry. Sharia and Fiqh Madaris were largely centred on the study of fiqh Islamic jurisprudence. The "doctorate was obtained after an oral examination to determine the originality of the candidate's theses", and to test the student's "ability to defend them against all objections, in disputations set up for the purpose.
According to Makdisi, the Latin title licentia docendi 'licence to teach' in the European university may have been a translation of the Arabic,  but the underlying concept was very different.
The mufti professor of legal opinions took this question, studied it, researched it intensively in the sacred scriptures, in order to find a solution to it. Bimaristan Though Islamic medicine was most often taught at the bimaristan teaching hospitals, there were also several medical madaris dedicated to the teaching of medicine.
For example, of the madrasa colleges in 15th century Damascus, three of them were medical schools. Shanks and Dawshe Al-Kalai point out that, during this era, physician licensure became mandatory in the Abbasid Caliphate. For more information, see Islamic university disambiguation.
Scholars like Arnold H. Green and Seyyed Hossein Nasr have argued that, starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madaris indeed became universities. However, the classification of madaris as "universities" is disputed on the question of understanding of each institution on its own terms.
In a sense, the madrasa resembles a university college in that it has most of the features of a university, but lacks the corporate element. Toby Huff summarises the difference as follows: From a structural and legal point of view, the madrasa and the university were contrasting types. Whereas the madrasa was a pious endowment under the law of religious and charitable foundations waqfthe universities of Europe were legally autonomous corporate entities that had many legal rights and privileges.
These included the capacity to make their own internal rules and regulations, the right to buy and sell property, to have legal representation in various forums, to make contracts, to sue and be sued.
In central and eastern Islamic lands, the view that the madrasa, as a charitable endowment, will remain under the control of the donor and their descendentresulted in a "spurt" of establishment of madaris in the 11th and 12th centuries.
However, in Western Islamic lands, where the Maliki views prohibited donors from controlling their endowment, madaris were not as popular. Unlike the corporate designation of Western institutions of higher learning, the waqf designation seemed to have led to the exclusion of non-orthodox religious subjects such a philosophy and natural science from the curricula.
George Makdisi, who has published most extensively on the topic  concludes in his comparison between the two institutions: Thus the university, as a form of social organization, was peculiar to medieval Europe.
Later, it was exported to all parts of the world, including the Muslim East; and it has remained with us down to the present day.Academic Writing is a Waste of Time – Unless You Use Our Help.
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